Cosmic Dark Matter and Energy

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ABOUT TIME

**All About the Origin and Nature of Time**

**Abstract**

Time is the most fundamental mystery concept of nature over which we have no say whatsoever. We are being taken for an unending one way roller coaster ride in time to eternity, literally, we are forced to travel with the flow of time and cannot run away forward or backward from present time, and therefore time-travel is a myth. The dynamics of matter and life are coupled with its very existence. There are many publications about the nature of time but none of them reveals the origin and the mechanism behind time. I propose a novel simple explanation of the origin and nature of time based on Einstein’s space-time metric which unifies space with time. Unlike the three real space dimensions that we are very familiar with I show how the time dimension ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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discover the true nature of time.

**1. Introduction**

What about time? Well, it is a mythical god named Chronus, it is eternal, we take it for granted, we depend on it and make use of it in our daily lives but we absolutely have no idea of what makes it tick. There are only two events in life during which time matters to any person and that is birth and death. We identify three phases of time namely the past, the present and the future with a one way speed from past to future. The only thing that matter in nature is what happens right now, at present, what is happening right now becomes instant history with the constant one way flow of time that creates the past that is frozen in only our memories. The past has no physical existence to get back to, time travel back to the past is only a fiction of our imagination, in short, as far as nature is concerned past does not exist.

The future is everything that is there waiting to happen, the future is in general unpredictable and unknown. The future course of events can be planned and executed at present and becomes more or less predictable but not 100% certain. When we speak of -I am looking forward to- we give an expectation to the future outcome but it is never a certainty. There are just too many parameters in nature that can interfere with a future outcome and those parameters interact in real time constantly until that time, for example when predicting the weather. According to

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future position of the target and aim accordingly and according to

What I said so far is of course common sense but when we speak of time travel that is an entirely different ball game. There are all kinds of contradictions, paradoxes and even fiction that time travel can create. You can predict the future may be 100% accurately but you cannot travel to that future event from present time to be there to see when it happens before others get to see it happening -already it is getting confusing-. Then there is that concept of causality which means in simple words cause must happen before the effect

-that makes sense- time travel in any form can be argued to break the rule of causality. Forget about time travel, as I will show here we are simply and without exception bound and confined to be only at present time which ticks away at a universal time speed.

Just like Einstein said, time too is relative and variable, for example if you can travel at the speed of light or be near a black hole, time freezes. So he said, but there is that contradiction, to the person traveling at the speed of light or be near a black hole, his local clock just ticks at the same rate as he always had, or so he thinks. It is those persons observing him from outside that observes his time frozen, conversely, that person traveling at the speed of light would observe all the clocks in the rest of the universe frozen too. Is that a paradox? Yes and No. Yes, because it is a matter of relativity, that the person traveling at the speed of light seeing time dilation of the rest of the universe is surely not real. No, because experiments have proved time dilation effects, or is it real? This subject and the corresponding twin paradox are still controversial. Although Einstein’s special theory of relativity united time with space and gave us working equations that apply in practice, nevertheless time remained a fundamental mystery until now!

We do not know how we perceive time, do we have a built in biological clock? It appears to be so; at least we can sense periodic intervals to a high degree of accuracy even while asleep for example the timing of the heart beat is well controlled. Nature appears to have given survival preference to those who can master time. Why does time happen and

how? Let me analyze on what we are supposed to know so far and then make my hypothesis about the origin and nature of time. Unlike

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to time by uniting space and time. According to him the flow of time can only be slowed down and even stopped when moving at the speed of light or near strong gravitational fields, the so called time dilation effect. This implies that we cannot speed up the flow of time, which in turn must establish an upper limit to the speed of time, a universal flow

speed of time. That is a Newtonian absolute time existing when at rest and far removed from gravity. This brings us back to the same old question of what is universal time. I state that the universal time rate of flow is an absolute maximum speed of time so to speak. Just like the speed of light barrier there is a speed of time barrier. Time simply cannot be speeded up more than that maximum, it can only be slowed down below that and even stopped completely.

**2. Aberration of stellar light**

This is an important concept for light and yet can be very counter intuitive. It is very important to understand the mechanism behind this for the sake of understanding time. It is an observed apparent motion of stars due to the speed of motion of the earth around the sun. The popular example to illustrate the idea is the traveler in a moving train observing rain drops falling at an angle inclined ahead of the train. Although this example is good to

illustrate the concept there is a big difference between rain drops and light because of the constancy of the speed of light in relativity theory. It must be stressed that the aberration effect of star light is not a relativistic effect but it can become relativistic at high speeds, I will only consider normal aberration of star light as discovered by Bradley.

This effect is caused due only to a transverse motion of the object with respect to the incoming direction of light and does not show aberration if the object is moving in the same direction to the observed light.

Figure 1 depicts the rain drop situation, ‘u’ is the speed of rain drops ‘v’ is the speed of the observer moving orthogonal to the direction of the falling rain and angle ‘theta’ is the observed aberration. In this case the rain drops have an apparent speed of Sqrt(v^2+u^2) as shown and Tan(theta) = v/u. Figure 2 shows the case for light. It portrays a very

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different picture, because of the speed of light is constant in any frame of reference the

observer sees the light rays approaching at an angle with velocity ‘c’ as shown. This gives the aberration angle as Sin(alpha) = v/c. It is very simple, but light gives a very different result that agrees well with observation which also corroborates the constancy of the speed of light founded in relativity theory.

**2.1 The Speedometer in Space-Time**

The light aberration effect has nothing to do with the far away source being observed, any velocity of the far away source does not affect the results and therefore the relative velocity between source and observer is irrelevant. This therefore rules out symmetry of relativity for this effect, that is the effect is not mutual in reversing the roles of the source and observer. Effectively the source is so far away it appears fixed in space and stationery how ever fast the observer moves, except for the aberration effect. What this means is very interesting, the effect appears to be local and only dependant on the transverse speed of the observer. It is almost as if there is also absoluteness to velocity in space. But we can detect aberration only if there is a change in speed of the observer, that is if the observer changes the transverse speed from one direction to the opposite direction as in the case of the earth orbit changing direction every six months. It is literally a differential

speedometer of the observer and therefore is unable to read an absolute speed of motion in space. It is not only the differential speed in space that aberration measures, it also measures the differential time dilation of the observer. For example in Fig 2 the observers time interval is reduced by the factor Cos(alpha), that is another stationary observer sees the moving observers time interval ‘t’’ relative to his own time interval ‘t’ as:

t’ = t*Sqrt(1 – v^2/c^2) ………………………...1

Of course this time dilation will not be noticed by the moving observer since all his clocks including his biological clock would be dilated correspondingly, but it is a real effect as it should be per the special theory of relativity. The importance in understanding Stellar Light aberration is significant to the concept and origin of time that I explore in this article.

**3. Real Nature of Time**

We consider time as another dimension, it is not another static dimension of a physical space but we conceive and sense a feel of flow of this dimension of time. What can be ………………………………………………………………………………………………

Einstein’s special theory of relativity ascribes the time coordinate as “ict” in order to unite time with space giving us a space-time event vector - Minkowski- space- as:

s^2 = x^2 + y^2 + z^2 + (ict)^2 ……………………2

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where: ‘i’ is the imaginary number, ‘c’ is the speed of light, ‘t’ is the time, ‘s’ is the event and ‘x,y,z’ are the 3D space coordinates. Looking at equation 2, the event space x,y & z ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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time was articulated by Einstein’s theories of relativity. But the reality of the interpretation and experiments of time dilation is still paradoxical. Let me pose a few examples about velocity time dilation arguments.

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**4. Gravitational Time Dilation**

When it comes to time dilation due to gravity I have come to a very different conclusion to that derived by General Theory of Relativity. Here I will summarize my hypothesis on the time dilation due to gravity. In my article 2 where I derive

the acceleration due to gravity at a distance from mass ‘g’ then I obtain for the time dilation due to gravity as:

t’ = t*sqrt( 1 – g^2 / g^2) ……………………...3

If I rearrange this equation in a radial distance form I get t’ = t*sqrt( 1 – r(0)^4/r^4) where r(0) = sqrt( GM/ g) and r(0) appears to relate to a Schwarzschild Radius.

Equation 3 clearly implies that gravitational time dilation is related to acceleration due to gravity. It would be tempting to carry this idea one more step and state that any kind of acceleration would lead to time dilation, specially, in light of the equivalence principle of

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acceleration and gravity. This idea appears natural because velocity and acceleration are related with time as ‘ v = g*t ’ therefore v1/v2 = g1/g2 ratios are equivalent for equal time intervals, then if we substitute ‘ v/c = g/ g ‘ in equation 1 we obtain equation 3. If this is the case then a body in stable orbit around a mass should have no net radial acceleration and therefore should not display gravitational time dilation effects even though the object is within the gravitational field of the mass. Do objects in free fall under zero gravity display time dilation effects due to gravity? These are controversial thoughts and needs further research and or experiment.

**5. Conclusion**

I have given a reasonable novel explanation of the nature and origin of time. The basic ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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very nature always confined to our present time. We can only do relativistic time travel, which is slow down time relatively, nothing more. There appears to be another interesting consequence regards to mass energy formulation. If an object of mass ‘m’ is moving at a speed ‘v’ in 3D space the kinetic energy of motion is easily seen to be ‘m*v^2’. ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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The first term in formula 4 refers to the kinetic mass energy within the time dimension,

The second term is the normal mass kinetic energy motion in 3D space. The total kinetic ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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I believe strongly that the origin and nature of time is this simple to explain provided we ………………………………………………………………………………………………

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to us humans. Unless there is a better theory of time than this, it is time for me to state that this is all there is about the origin and nature of time and it is no longer a mystery anymore. Any ideas on possible experimental consequences- such as the time dilation of gravity formula- are welcome.

**6. References**

[1] http://cosmicdarkmatter.com (K. Tissa. Perera: Gravity, Matter & Time from Beyond

the 4^{th} Space, email: ktperera@hotmail.com )

[2] http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/9910024 (Kunst, E. K.: On the Origin of Time)

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minkowski_spacetime

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